Optimizing Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Injections: A Narrative Review

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Chris Cherian
Gerard Malanga
Ken Mautner


Articular Cartilage, Platelet-Rich Plasma, Tendinopathy, Muscle Injury


Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an orthobiologic treatment that has gained popularity as a potential alternative treatment for various musculoskeletal conditions. The physiologic role of platelets in the healing cascade provides clarity regarding its potential as it releases various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, there are various characteristics of PRP treatments including platelet count, presence or absence of leukocytes and red blood cells, as well as the use of an activating agent that introduces heterogeneity among preparations. This aim of this article is to provide clarity, where available, regarding the optimal characteristics for PRP treatments regarding tendon and ligament injuries as well as articular and muscular pathology.

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